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    Microsoft is keen to point out that with Windows Phone it has the device that IT organisations want to roll out to customers and that BYOD is no longer a stumbling block.It would be ironic if at the same time the increasing attractiveness of the Nokia phones led to consumer pull anyway.Intel is about to muscle up, scale down, and take a serious shot at marginalising Apple's iPad among business buyers.The campaign started at Computex with the launch of the Core M just-for-typoslabs 14nm silicon.It is important to understand that Core-M is not just a new piece of “marketechture”. Instead it is a fully-fledged platform/brand with the same stature of the Centrino moniker Intel used to denote the presence of integrated WiFi in laptops of the early 2000s.* The 14nm Broadwell-based Core M is all about four things:Intel has focussed its efforts on bringing those qualities to typoslabs, aka two-in-one laptops whose screens separate to become tablets, because it wants to make sure such devices represent a strong alternative to tablets and especially tablets running ARM chippery.

    Chipzilla's plans rests on the vPro version of the Core M. The extra manageability vPro brings to the typoslab platform will be pitched squarely at businesses, especially those contemplating or already implementing bring your own device regimes.The Reg has beheld Intel's Core-M-powered Llama Mountain reference design for business typoslabs. If OEMs improve on it even a little, it will allow the creation of very attractive devices because it already offers a colossal and light tablet. Intel has hinted to us that it expects to see very interesting creations based on Llama Mountain by the end of the year. ASUS has already shown OEMs are willing to get mighty innovative, if a bit weird, with its five-in-one Windows/Android/phone/typoslab/tablet.Intel and partners will point out, pointedly, that it is entirely possible for end-users to be very productive even if they can't have an iPad. We can expect Apple's iOS to be portrayed as an unwelcome silo of hard-to-manage quirkiness, never mind that it now runs Office. A subtext will point out that employees' kids are as excited, or maybe more so, about the prospect of a BYOD iPad coming home than employees themselves. Which isn't really the point of BYOD, is it?

    Windows typoslabs will be positioned as the best of all possible words. Workers get a tablet that – thanks to its dual role as a laptop screen – has a larger display than current iPads.Managers get the knowledge their team always have a mobile device capable of running the applications they've built for Windows. Even demanding applications will be fine – if Intel can get its fan docks that allow Core M to run at its highest clock speed accepted by OEMs and buyers.IT departments get PCs everywhere, which whether they particularly enjoy it or not is a mode of operations with which they should be familiar. IT folks will also be freed from the need to contemplate new middleware – yes, we're looking at YOU, Citrix and VMware – to funnel apps to fondleslabs.Surface is one of Microsoft's contributions to the pincer movement, because its mere existence helps to legitimise the typoslab concept. Redmond also provides the cloud services needed to make mobile working less dependent on the C: Drive, and therefore more resilient.

    Universal applications, Redmond's plans for write-once, run on PCs-and-smartmobes, helps things along by making it easier to bring apps into typoslabs.Yes, Microsoft isn't helping things by offering Office on the iPad, as doing so gives Apple's creation a more natural place in business. But typoslabs' keyboards mean it is possible to use more of the suite's features in the field. Expect this to be pointed out with messaging about typoslabs being grand tools for content consumption and content creation.The stars are lining up for Intel's assault, as the tablet market is already cooling off, as are iPad sales. Anecdotally, the slowdown is because users are tired of schlepping three devices around all day.Intel and friends will try to take advantage of those circumstances and the fact that first-and-second-generation iPads are now approaching end-of-life to make the Windows typoslab the IT department's replacement of choice.

    For 14 years, The Register has been chronicling the publicity stunts of Kevin Warwick, an attention-seeking academic with a sideline in self-mutilation*. In fact, Warwick has been making improbable claims to the press for much longer than that: over twenty years. But the world has continued to relay Warwick's stunts and soundbytes unskeptically.This week, the realisation may have belatedly dawned on much of the mainstream media that a Kevin Warwick claim needs to be taken with a mine's worth of salt. The "science" proves (or disproves) very little, and his predictions are frequently a load of cock. Former BBC science man David Whitehouse reminded everyone via Twitter this week that as far back as 1991, Warwick was predicting "real life Terminators" within ten years.What did it this time is Warwick's claim that the "Turing Test" - which measures ability of a machine to convincingly mimic a human while communicating with real humans in a blind test - had been passed at an event Warwick had organised and hosted. This had all the hallmarks of a Warwick stunt - you only had to look.

    Warwick told the media that the landmark had been achieved using a "supercomputer" - when it fact it was a simple AI chatbot program running on a laptop. The chatbot's developer had tried and failed many times to convince humans it was human. This time, the academic luminaries chosen to judge the Test included a retired advertising being with no scientific background (now a Lib Dem peer) and, um … the TV actor and former shoemaker Robert Llewellyn, whose cybernetics qualifications consist of having played the neurotic robot Kryten in Red Dwarf.Only a third of the judges were actually persuaded that the chatbot was a 13-year old Ukrainian speaking English as a second language. Again, as Dr Whitehouse points out, it isn't hard to imitate a 13-year old.Warwick's latest stunt is a vivid example of Jaron Lanier's observation that to be impressed by computer AI, we first have to make ourselves pretty stupid."You can't tell if a machine has gotten smarter or if you've just lowered your own standards of intelligence to such a degree that the machine seems smart," wrote Lanier in You Are Not A Gadget. "People degrade themselves in order to make machines seem smart all the time."

    [Or we might paraphrase the cruel but popular description of Stephen Fry and say that what we have here is a stupid person's idea of an intelligent machine - Ed].For some judges this proved less difficult than others. The Turing Test cuts both ways: so far from being a test of how intelligent the software is, it's a test of how intelligent the judge is - or the media reporting the contest.At first the reporting was uncritical. Gosh, wow – and how about that – wrote the Guardian. And the Daily Mail. And the BBC.Today everyone has sobered up. Rollo, a chatbot creation of the fantastically misanthropic and rather evasive AI software developer Rollo Carpenter (I talked to him here) had previously achieved a 59.3 per cent kiddology score, as New Scientist points out. The Guardian has performed a reverse ferret.And now we can see the transcripts, we can see how low the judges dumbed themselves down. Asked by the bot 'Eugene' where the judge lived, this exchange followed:For years, Warwick's Wikipedia entry was the subject of furious edit wars, with many amendments made from a computer at Reading University, where Warwick lectures. Which has all rather put Kevin Warwick under the microscope.

    How has Warwick contrived to gather so much publicity? Well, he stays away just long enough for people to forget who he is. For years, his Wikipedia entry listed the skeptical reaction that greeted his publicity stunts - and his popular nickname, Captain Cyborg, conferred upon him by this very publication. (Edits hyping his own claims could be sourced to his own University). Now it's almost completely scrubbed clean, again.Most journalists and researchers don't get further than the top paragraph of a Wikipedia entry. But perhaps most of all, editors and producers desperately want to believe his claims are plausible.* He installed a chip in his arm, for instance, and claimed that he had become the advanced guard of the Terminators thereby.The new release will be welcomed by gamers and laptop owners, as the operating system is now said to suspend and resume operations rather more quickly. There's also support for Sony's DualShock 4 controller and improved drivers for some graphics cards.On a more serious note, there's now support for the AVX-512 instructions expected to debut in Intel's 2015 “Knight's Landing” many core architecture chippery, which will bring up to 72 Atom cores onto a single board.

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    Ein Fingerabdruck-Scanner ist ebenfalls vorhanden, er ist in den Home-Button integriert. Das Galaxy A8 verfügt über zwei SIM-Karten-Steckplätze, eine 16-Megapixel-Hauptkamera mit LED-Blitz und eine 5-Megapixel-Frontkamera.Mit der offiziellen Präsentation des größten Modells der Galaxy-A-Serie ist in den nächsten Tagen zu rechnen. Vermutlich wird Samsung das neue Modell zunächst in China starten.Wie der französische Onlinedienst Nowhereelse mit Hinweis auf chinesische Händler berichtet, startet Samsung am 17. Juli den Verkauf in China. Das Galaxy A8 wird dort zum Preis von umgerechnet 439 Euro angeboten. Gerade mal 329 Euro will Nokia für das 5730 XpressMusic. Für ein reines Musikhandy ist das ein durchschnittlicher Preis, doch der kompakte, wenn auch etwas dickliche Rocker mit Schreibmaschinentastatur bietet deutlich mehr und zeigte im Test echte Smartphone-Qualitäten.

    Das 5730 XpressMusic arbeitet mit Nokias Smartphone-Plattform S60 und reiht sich zwischen die Modelle 5630 XpressMusic und 5800 XpressMusic ein. Das hier getestete 5730 kommt als Handy im Riegelformat daher und begnügt sich mit einer Zifferntastatur, das 5800 wird ausschließlich über einen Touchscreen bedient. Dafür bietet das 5730 XM für bequeme Texteingaben eine ausziehbare Qwertz-Tastatur.Auch Business-Funktionen hat das 5730 XM zu bieten. Etwas versteckt unter "Programme/Organizer" finden sich Reader für Office-Dokumente oder PDFs. Als typisches S60-Modell lässt das Smartphone in puncto Schnittstellen kaum einen Wunsch offen. So unterstützt es neben UMTS samt HSDPA auch Wireless LAN und verfügt über einen GPS-Empfänger samt Nokias Karten- und Navigationsanwendung Maps inklusive dreimonatiger Testlizenz. Hinzu kommen immer mehr von Nokias eigenen Internet-Diensten, wie etwa der Ovi-Store, der jede Menge Zusatzprogramme bereithält.

    In erster Linie will das 5730 XM aber natürlich diejenigen zufriedenstellen, die ihr Smartphone unterwegs auch als Musicplayer nutzen. Dafür gibt es oben am Gehäuse eine 3,5-mm-Klinkenbuchse für Kopfhörer, links neben dem Display drei Tasten, um den Player jederzeit steuern zu können und im Lieferumfang eine 8 GB große MicroSD-Karte, die die 44 MB an internem Speicher ergänzt.Das beiliegende Datenkabel ist übrigens nur 20 Zentimeter lang, was für die Verbindung mit dem Notebook aber ausreicht. Der Player sortiert nach den üblichen Kriterien wie Interpret, Album oder Genre, erstellt automatische Wiedergabelisten etwa der meistgehörten Stücke und bietet die Möglichkeit, eigene Listen zu erstellen. Unterstützt werden sämtliche derzeit üblichen Musikformate. So ist der Player offen für alle gängigen Quellen und lässt sich beispielsweise in den Windows Mediaplayer oder Nokias eigenen Musicplayer für den Rechner einbinden; Musik aus iTunes gelangt einfach per Drag and drop aufs Smartphone.

    Wird das 5730 über Nokias eigenen Musicstore mit neuen Titeln versorgt, ist Microsofts WMA das Format der Wahl. Der Musicstore ist sowohl vom Rechner aus zugänglich als auch direkt vom Smartphone über einen Link im Musikmenü. Der Player klingt gut, sofern man das beiliegende Headset durch einen besseren Kopfhörer ersetzt: Erst so kommt seine Qualität zur Geltung. Auch ein kabelloses Stereo-Headset kann dank A2D-Profil zum Einsatz kommen.Weil ein guter Musicplayer allein niemanden mehr hinterm Ofen vorlockt, hat Nokia dem 5730 XM zusätzlich umfangreiche Nachrichten-Funktionen spendiert. So war auf dem Testgerät neben dem S60-typischen E-Mail-Client auch ein Client für Nokias Push-Dienst vorinstalliert. Der bringt Nachrichten von beliebigen E-Mail-Konten automatisch aufs Gerät und stellt auch HTML-Mails dar. Auch Nokias Dienst für Instant Messaging ist ebenso wie Windows Live vorinstalliert.

    Daneben finden sich feste Links zu Youtube, MySpace oder Facebook, die schnelle Status-Updates ohne umständliche Login-Prozedur ermöglichen. Wer diese Angebote nutzt, wird die Vereinfachung zu schätzen wissen, wenn auch das etwas unübersichtliche Angebot etwa von zwei E-Mail-Clients Gewöhnung erfordert. Unbedingt ratsam ist wie immer das Zubuchen eines passenden Datentarifs beim Provider.Ein günstiges Smartphone für alle die Verarbeitungsmängel und ein vergleichsweise kleines Display nicht stören. Dass sich der günstige Preis irgendwo niederschlagen muss, ist klar. Ein deutlicher Schwachpunkt ist das Display, das angesichts der Internet-Ausstattung etwas zu klein ausfällt und sich obendrein mit einer Auflösung von 240x320 Pixeln begnügt. Auch die Schriftgröße lässt mitunter zu wünschen übrig, doch immerhin ist die Anzeige auch bei hellem Licht noch passabel ablesbar. Gute Lichtverhältnisse sind wiederum für die Nutzung der 3-Megapixel-Kamera mit Autofokus nötig, die zwar brauchbare Aufnahmen liefert, aber bei zu wenig Licht wie üblich schwächelt - da schafft auch die Doppel-LED wenig Abhilfe.

    Seine Spuren hinterlassen hat der Rotstift auch bei der Verarbeitung. Der Schiebemechanismus für die Tastatur hatte beim Testgerät schon nach dem Auspacken zu viel Spiel und lässt sich zu leicht bewegen, die Kamerataste ist klein und wackelig. Die Qwertz-Tastatur bietet dagegen erfreulich große Tasten und einen sanften, aber gleichmäßigen Druckpunkt. Dass die obere Ziffernreihe fehlt und sich die Umlaute an ungewohnter Stelle befinden, hat man schnell intus. Im Labor überzeugt das 5730 mit gutem Klang und ordentlichem Empfang sowie guter Ausdauer, sieht man von der typisch mageren Sprechzeit im UMTS-Netz ab.Wen die Verarbeitungsmängel und das vergleichsweise kleine Display nicht stören, der findet im 5730 XpressMusic ein günstiges Smartphone, das den MP3-Player ersetzt und zahlreiche Kanäle für den Kontakt zum Freundeskreis bietet.Das Medion X5020 bietet für 300 Euro viel Ausstattung. 5-Zoll-FullHD-Display, Octa-Core-CPU, 13-MP-Kamera und 32-GB-Speicher sind vorhanden. Zudem bringt Medion mit dem X5004 auch eine günstigere Variante des X5020 mit weniger Speicher.

    Medion stellt auf der IFA in Berlin sein erstes Smartphone mit LTE vor. Das Medion X5020 ist ein Android-Phone mit 5-Zoll-FullHD-Display (Auflösung: 1080 x 1920 Pixel) und einer Ausstattung auf oberem Mittelklasse-Niveau. So übernimmt der 64-Bit Octa-Core-Prozessor Snapdragon 615 den Antrieb. Seine schnellen Cortex-A53-Kerne werden bis auf 1,5 GHz beschleunigt. 3 GB RAM und 32 GB interner Speicher sind eingebaut. Per MicroSD-Karte ist dieser Speicher erweiterbar, wobei ein Hybrid-Slot vorhanden ist. Er kann entweder eine MicroSD-Karte oder eine zweite SIM-Karte aufnehmen. Als Betriebssystem ist Android 5.0 installiert.Das 130 Gramm leichte X5020 geht mit einer 5-Megapixel-Frontkamera mit Blitz und einer 13-Megapixel-Hauptkamera mit Autofokus und Blitz an den Start. Das in LTE-Netzen einsetzbare Smartphone hat einen 2.600 mAh Akku und kann zwei SIM-Karten aufnehmen – eine Micro-SIM und eine Nano-SIM, wobei der Micro-SIM-Slot alternativ auch eine MicroSD-Karte aufnimmt.Medion startet das X5020 im vierten Quartal in Deutschland in den drei Farben-Varianten: Mit schwarzem Gehäuse und grauem Metallrahmen, mit weißem Gehäuse mit silbernem Metallrahmen sowie mit weißem Gehäuse mit rosegoldenem Metallrahmen. Sein Preis: 299 Euro.

    Außerdem wird Medion im vierten Quartal eine leicht abgespeckte Version des X5020 anbieten. Das Medion X5004 unterscheidet sich lediglich bei RAM und internem Speicher vom X5020. Es bietet 2 GB RAM und 16 GB Flashspeicher. Es kostet 249 Euro und wird lediglich mit dem schwarzen Gehäuse mit silbernem Rahmen angeboten.Der Webshop von Dell bietet dem Käufer ein breites Spektrum an Konfigurationsoptionen. So liegt beim Dell Vostro 1500 der nackte Basispreis bei 1183 Euro. Doch wenn es etwas mehr sein darf oder man - wie wir, die wir auf gute Ausdauer Wert legen - den zusätzlichen, großen 9-Zellen-Akku mitbestellt, wird's natürlich teurer. Extra kosten auch die mobile Breitband-HSDPA-Karte, ein HeadsetHier gehts zum Kauf bei Amazon für VoIP sowie drei Jahre McAfee Security Suite und das Software-Paket Office 2007 Basic. Und weil schneller besser ist, muss es außerdem noch die 7200-Upm-Festplatte sein. Unterm Strich kostete das so ausgestattete Vostro-Testmuster 1765 Euro brutto. Wer sich allerdings gegen die Extra-Software und das Headset entscheidet, kann von dem aufgerufenen Preis wieder rund 330 Euro abziehen.

    In der getesteten Konfiguration war das Vostro mit zwei Akkus und einem Core-2-Duo-T7500 Prozessor, 2 Gigabyte Arbeitsspeicher, NVidia-GeForce 8600m-GT-Grafik-Karte sowie schneller 7200-Upm-Festplatte bis an die Zähne bewaffnet. Neben der überragenden Systemleistung werkelte es mit beiden Akkus und auf 100 cd/m2 gedimmtem Display exakt sieben Stunden ohne Steckdose.Allerdings sind die Qualitäten der beiden sehr unterschiedlich verteilt. Während das HP als leichter und vergleichsweise kleiner, aber dennoch leistungstarker Rechenknecht des mobilen Arbeiters punktet, bietet das vergleichsweise große und mit dickem 9-Zellen-Akku rund 3,4 Kilo schwere Dell Systemleistung und Ausdauer satt.Insbesondere die sehr schnelle Festplatte macht das Arbeiten mit dem Dell zum Vergnügen. Ihre 48 MB/s Datendurchsatz fühlen sich auch subjektiv deutlich schneller als die bei 5400-er Platten meist gebotenen 33 MB/s an. Auch die 10 bis 20 Prozent kürzeren Zugriffszeiten tragen einiges zum Tempoerlebnis bei. Sehr erfreulich ist das exzellente Display: Dessen 213 cd/m2 maximale Helligkeit sind über jeden Zweifel erhaben.

  • Lenovo IdeaPad Z580 Battery

    Google also wants to get into the living room and showed off Android TV, which it said will ship on Sony, Sharp and Philips TVs next year. The system works with Google's Chromecast dongle to access the phone's games and media, and display it all on the big screen.When you're not watching telly, the system can also turn the TV into a digital picture frame, showing photos stored on Google Drive or from the web in a continuously changing background mode.The new Android build is also being designed to work with Google's Chrome OS. Smartphones can be configured to recognize a Chromebook and display notification messages on the screen, as well as access the laptop's APIs and move data between devices.Despite this integration, Android and Chrome OS look to continue as separate entities for the time being. But with the new push to get Android everywhere it's likely that we'll see closer integration between the two operating systems in the future.The answer to the rise of internet attacks won’t come solely through technology. If there’s one topic that security experts can agree on, as they squabble over the code-level response, it’s that the education of the general public needs to improve. Not enough attention goes on people and this has been the industry’s biggest failing, says Professor Woodward.

    “Machines don’t spontaneously mount attacks – they are commanded by people and people are more often than not the specific target of engineering an attack. A little awareness can go a long way,” Woodward says.“That awareness needs to extend beyond just top level headlines. I think end users … need to be constantly updating themselves about the nature of the threat. Knowing how some piece of social engineering works today does not mean it will help in several months time when the miscreants will have thought of a new ruse to fool you.“Personally I think the only way this will happen is if there is a suitable combination of carrot and stick. After all, we expect people to take reasonable precautions in protecting physical property – insurance companies won’t pay out if you haven’t done so.”The UK government has shown some inclination towards improving public awareness. In January it launched the Cyber Streetwise campaign. It saw posters put up across the country, calling on people to use more complex passwords, decent anti-virus and adequate privacy settings. Little is known of the initiative's actual impact.

    But it’s not just individuals who don’t get the problem. Basic steps to improve workers’ awareness of social engineering, which is used in most modern-day attacks on companies, would be a good start, says Peter Wood, CEO of consultancy First Base Technologies.“The obvious response is to invest in people as much as technology. It’s a complex and creative task, very similar to a professional marketing campaign, but it has to be done and it has be an ongoing process. Sending out an email and telling people to read the security policy never worked, but imaginative and evangelical awareness programmes can work if the right people are involved and commitment is made at the top,” says Wood.Whilst the average employee could do with a lesson in security, too often, the lack of understanding goes right to the top of organisations, says Simon Placks, head of cybercrime investigations at EY.

    “Companies are starting to understand that they need to assess their exposure, but are doing so with limited situational awareness. We need to see companies re-thinking how they view security. The best approach an organisation can take is to raise cyber security to board level responsibility,” Placks adds.“Similarly, when breaches occur, corporations need to treat incidents as corporate investigations, not IT remediation exercises. Many organisations are still treating network intrusions as if they were virus outbreaks. An intrusion is not an illness that can be prevented with good cyber-hygiene. Someone is out to get you, and you need to respond accordingly, otherwise it is only a matter of time before we see the first large-scale corporate collapse following a devastating cyber-attack.”The policy response will be crucial too. In the UK, the Computer Misuse Act, the Data Protection Act and fraud legislation are designed to protect people’s data, with police forces like the National Cyber Crime Unit and privacy watchdog the Information Commissioner’s Office set up to enforce the law.Yet they may all need developing and updating, if cyber crooks are to be caught. According to Stewart Room, barrister and solicitor specialising in data protection, that legislation is required to improve the fight against online crimes, is an indictment of the efforts of non-public organisations.

    “Regulatory laws are designed to cure ‘market imperfections’, by which I mean the failure of markets to cure themselves of their own ills. When regulations are adopted, the law is saying that the market does not have the skills, wherewithal, incentives or drivers to do what is necessary in the wider interests of society, which includes the wider interests of the economy, to fix itself,” says Room.“In this sense, the adoption of regulations is a bleak statement about the market. If the hacking problem needs regulations to improve cyber security, then as a matter of simple logic the medicine has to be strong, because the market has utterly failed.”Whilst Woodward and Malik believe market forces should be allowed to do their work, Room says a much harder line might have to be adopted if the industry can’t up its game. “Any scheme of regulation to improve the performance on cyber security will need to include compulsory breach disclosure, regulatory audits, fines and penalties. Toothless regulation will not improve anything.“I am not an immediate fan of increased regulation, however, and I believe that badly designed regulation can cause as much difficulty as it solves. My preference would be for the market to improve itself, with leadership from the security industry and other insiders. However, I have very little confidence that tough regulation will be avoided forever, because the cyber security problem seems to be getting worse.”

    In the US there is much talk of changing the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), with many hopeful of the passage of the proposed Aaron’s Law, named after the late internet activist Aaron Swartz who committed suicide after being threatened with the hacking law. Yet in the UK, little has been said of giving the CMA a thorough updating. That’s not to say it won’t happen soon, however.“The blistering pace of technology change and the cyber threats that come with it are only going to accelerate… Stronger regulation of cybersecurity in the public sector, private sector critical infrastructures, ICT service provision and companies critical to the UK's economy may happen in the future, as well as more proactive detection, investigation, prosecution and disruption of the threat by government and law enforcement,” says Placks.Outside of improving and expediting the police response to digital crime, mandating education could be the way forward for government, adds Wood. “My change to regulatory frameworks would be to include a specific requirement for continual investment in user education. Not the tick-in-a-box compulsory basic training offerings, although they can play a part, but audited requirements for full-blown awareness campaigns, backed by creative people and ideas.”

    No doubt many of The Reg’s readers are tired of the term “the Internet of Things”. It is both a nebulous term and a vague idea. What it attempts to encapsulate is the masses of networks of automated machines that didn’t traditionally have connectivity, working to manage the environment around them, supposedly for the benefit of everyone.Typical examples are fridges that notify users when something’s not right with the groceries inside, smart energy systems that manage heating to maximise efficiency and a toothbrush that reports oral hygiene habits to dentists.It’s a brave new world, one rife with possibility for businesses hoping to make money from things that weren’t profitable before they were able to interact with the internet. The problem with giving objects IP addresses, however, is that they become exploitable. And in the world of embedded devices, if hackers hit them, they might be able to cause serious damage.

    “The Internet is now woven into the fabric of our lives, literally in some cases, as connectivity is embedded into everyday objects,” says David Emm, senior security researcher at Kaspersky Lab. “The result is that we can be touched in more ways than ever by those who wish to subvert technology. The risks include theft of data by an attacker or manipulation of that data so that incorrect information is sent.”This was highlighted in April by researcher Cesar Cerrudo, from consultancy IOActive, when he uncovered vulnerabilities in devices helping manage traffic lights. The flaws, which revolved around improper validation of data, would allow a hacker to head out on the streets, hook up to the affected machines from a laptop and trick the lights into sticking on a colour, or changing unexpectedly. That could cause some nasty traffic, or much worse.Another piece of IOActive research from this year uncovered problems in Belkin WeMo home automation power switches. It claimed a malicious outsider could cause house fires by exploiting the flaws, which Belkin subsequently said it had fixed.